Rss Feed

Pubmed: Obstetrics and Gynecology »

  • Digital blood glucose monitoring could provide new objective assessments of blood glucose control in women with gestational diabetes.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Digital blood glucose monitoring could provide new objective assessments of blood glucose control in women with gestational diabetes. Diabet Med. 2016 11;33(11):1598-1599 Authors: Hirst JE, Loerup L, Mackillop L, Farmer A, Kenworthy Y, Bartlett K, Velardo C, Kevat DA, Tarassenko L, Levy JC PMID: 26606543 [PubMed - indexed for ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • The RAD51C exonic splice-site mutations c.404G>C and c.404G>T are associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles The RAD51C exonic splice-site mutations c.404G>C and c.404G>T are associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017 Mar;26(2):165-169 Authors: Neidhardt G, Becker A, Hauke J, Horváth J, Bogdanova Markov N, Heilmann-Heimbach S, Hellebrand H, Thiele H, Altmüller J, Nürnberg P, Meindl A, Rhiem K, Blümcke B, Wappenschmidt B, Schmutzler RK, Hahnen E Abstract Whereas RAD51C mutations increase the relative risk for ovarian cancer (OC) to 5.88 (95% confidence interval=2.91-11.88, P=7.65×10), the associated risks for breast cancer (BC) remain largely unknown, as deleterious RAD51C alterations are extremely rare in BC-only families. Here, we report the results of a RAD51C mutational screening in a large series of German familial index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and the in-vitro characterization of two novel exonic RAD51C splice-site mutations. A total of 610 index cases derived from BC/OC (n=587) or OC-only families (n=23) were screened for potentially deleterious germline mutations in RAD51C. The frequencies of two splice-site mutations were assessed by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in 1410 additional cases not enriched for OC family history. In three independent families, we identified novel splice-site mutations affecting the last nucleotide of exon 2 (c.404G>C, c.404G>T). Both mutations disrupt proper RAD51C pre-mRNA processing and cause a missense substitution immediately followed by a stop codon (p.Cys135Serfs*2; p.Cys135Leufs*2). Even though both mutations have similar effects on the protein level, they are associated with either BC/OC, OC-only, or BC-only family histories. The rare finding of a clearly truncating RAD51C mutation in an early-onset BC patient with a BC-only family history supports the notion that compromised RAD51C function may result in both BC and OC. Large international collaborative studies are needed ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Evaluation of correct knowledge of key danger signs in pregnancy among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Evaluation of correct knowledge of key danger signs in pregnancy among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract. 2016 Mar-Apr;19(2):227-32 Authors: Morhason-Bello IO, Fagbamigbe AF, Mumuni TO, Adesina OA, Abdus-Salam AR, Ifemeje A, Ojengbede OA Abstract CONTEXT: Test of knowledge of pregnant women on key danger signs as a marker to assess the quality of information shared during health education at the antenatal clinic (ANC) is desirable. AIM: The aim was to assess correct knowledge of danger signs among pregnant women who attend ANC. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional design conducted among pregnant women at the ANC of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pretested structured questionnaire that contains sociodemographics, past obstetrics history, and a list of test questions to assess correct knowledge of danger signs was administered to each consenting participant. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. The knowledge score of key danger signs in pregnancy (KDSP) was measured on a scale of 0-7 and participants were scored as having poor (0-2), fair (3-4), or good (5-7) knowledge. The reliability of the questionnaire to assess knowledge score was determined with Cronbach's alpha. Statistical significance was set 5%. STATA 12.0 Software was used. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 30.28 ± 4.56 with the majority (75.1%) of respondents aged 26-35 years. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.871. In general, the knowledge score was good and the associated factors on bivariate analysis were younger age (P = 0.028), Islamic religion (P = 0.048), ethnicity (P = 0.03), professional occupation (P = 0.01), and previous attendance of health talk on KDSP (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: There was a high knowledge score of KDSP, but some still ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Comparison of Pueraria mirifica gel and conjugated equine estrogen cream effects on vaginal health in postmenopausal women.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Comparison of Pueraria mirifica gel and conjugated equine estrogen cream effects on vaginal health in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2017 Feb;24(2):210-215 Authors: Suwanvesh N, Manonai J, Sophonsritsuk A, Cherdshewasart W Abstract OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of a 12-week treatment with Pueraria mirifica (PM) gel or a conjugated estrogen cream on vaginal maturation index, vaginal symptom score, vaginal health assessment score, and vaginal flora in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In a prospective, noninferiority, randomized controlled study, 82 postmenopausal women with at least one vulvovaginal symptom, that is, dryness, soreness, irritation, dyspareunia, or discharge, were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups for treatment with either PM gel or conjugated estrogen cream (CEE). The treatment regimen consisted of application of 0.5 g of product intravaginally daily for 2 weeks, and then decreased to three times per week for 10 weeks. Vaginal maturation index, vaginal symptoms score, and vaginal health assessment score were evaluated before the beginning of the study and at 6 weeks and 12 weeks after treatment with PM or CEE. RESULTS: The vaginal maturation index increased significantly in both treatment groups at week 12, from 22.44 ± 22.28 to 47.56 ± 29.00 and from 27.07 ± 26.12 to 66.90 ± 22.42 in the PM and the CEE groups, respectively (P < 0.05). A significantly higher effect was, however, observed in the CEE group (P < 0.05). Vaginal symptom scores decreased significantly after treatment in both groups, from 4.37 ± 2.79 to 0.95 ± 1.88 and from 4.15 ± 2.16 to 0.68 ± 1.64 in the PM and the CEE groups, respectively (P < 0.05), with no statistically significant different between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a 12-week treatment regimen with Pueraria ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Prevalence and predictors of unsatisfactory anal cytology tests in a cohort of gay and bisexual men in Sydney, Australia: baseline findings from the Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC).

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Prevalence and predictors of unsatisfactory anal cytology tests in a cohort of gay and bisexual men in Sydney, Australia: baseline findings from the Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer (SPANC). Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017 May;26(3):212-216 Authors: Templeton DJ, Roberts JM, Poynten IM, Law C, Hillman RJ, Farnsworth A, Fairley CK, Tabrizi SN, Garland SM, Grulich AE, Jin F, On behalf of the SPANC Study Team Abstract Anal cytology has been suggested as a screening test for the anal cancer precursor high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of initial unsatisfactory anal cytology tests ('unsats'). The Study of the Prevention of Anal Cancer is a natural history study of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and precancerous lesions among gay and bisexual men (GBM) of at least 35 years in Sydney, Australia. At each study visit, an anal swab is collected for cytological testing. Unsats are defined as slides with fewer than 2000 nucleated squamous cells and no abnormal cells. Among 617 GBM enrolled, the median age was 49 (range: 35-79) years and 220 (35.7%) were HIV positive. Initial unsats occurred in 61 (9.9%, 95% confidence interval: 7.6-12.5%), and 29 (4.7%, 95% confidence interval: 3.2-6.7%) remained unsatisfactory on repeat cytology. Initial unsats were associated with fewer lifetime anal-receptive partners with a condom (P=0.007); fewer recent anal-receptive sexual partners without a condom (P=0.005); never having had anal chlamydia (P=0.023) or gonorrhea (P=0.003); HIV-negative status (P=0.002); fewer total (P=0.002), low-risk (P=0.005), and high-risk (P=0.015) HPV types detected; lack of anal HPV18 detection (P=0.001); never having anally douched (P<0.001); and douching with soapy water (P=0.009) among those who douched. Unsats were less common among those with histologic HSIL (P=0.008) and nonsignificantly less common among those with ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women. Int J STD AIDS. 2017 Nov;28(13):1325-1334 Authors: Agaba PA, Meloni ST, Sule HM, Ocheke AN, Agaba EI, Idoko JA, Kanki PJ Abstract We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5.6 ± 2.7 years. The mean age of the cohort was 46 ± 5 years. The most prevalent menopause symptoms were hot flushes (67.2%), joint and muscle discomfort (66.2%), physical/mental exhaustion (65.3%), heart discomfort (60.4%), and anxiety (56.4%). The median MRS score was higher for HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women (p = 0.01). Factors associated with severe menopause symptoms included HIV-positive status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.54) and history of cigarette smoking (aOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.31-13.26). Being married (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.77), premenopausal (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94), and self-reporting good quality of life (aOR: 0.62. 95% CI: 0.39-0.98) were protective against severe menopause symptoms. We found HIV infection, cigarette smoking, quality of life, and stage of the menopause transition to be associated with severe menopause symptoms. As HIV-positive populations are aging, additional attention should be given to the reproductive health of these women. PMID: 28409538 [PubMed - indexed for ...

    Comments: 0   View more...

  • Hyperglycemia impedes definitive endoderm differentiation of human embryonic stem cells by modulating histone methylation patterns.

    Posted 2018-02-15 11:01:53 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Hyperglycemia impedes definitive endoderm differentiation of human embryonic stem cells by modulating histone methylation patterns. Cell Tissue Res. 2017 06;368(3):563-578 Authors: Chen ACH, Lee YL, Fong SW, Wong CCY, Ng EHY, Yeung WSB Abstract Exposure to maternal diabetes during fetal growth is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes (T2D) in later life. Discovery of the mechanisms involved in this association should provide valuable background for therapeutic treatments. Early embryogenesis involves epigenetic changes including histone modifications. The bivalent histone methylation marks H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 are important for regulating key developmental genes during early fetal pancreas specification. We hypothesized that maternal hyperglycemia disrupted early pancreas development through changes in histone bivalency. A human embryonic stem cell line (VAL3) was used as the cell model for studying the effects of hyperglycemia upon differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE), an early stage of the pancreatic lineage. Hyperglycemic conditions significantly down-regulated the expression levels of DE markers SOX17, FOXA2, CXCR4 and EOMES during differentiation. This was associated with retention of the repressive histone methylation mark H3K27me3 on their promoters under hyperglycemic conditions. The disruption of histone methylation patterns was observed as early as the mesendoderm stage, with Wnt/β-catenin signaling being suppressed during hyperglycemia. Treatment with Wnt/β-catenin signaling activator CHIR-99021 restored the expression levels and chromatin methylation status of DE markers, even in a hyperglycemic environment. The disruption of DE development was also found in mouse embryos at day 7.5 post coitum from diabetic mothers. Furthermore, disruption of DE differentiation in VAL3 cells led to subsequent impairment in pancreatic progenitor formation. Thus, early ...

    Comments: 0   View more...