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Communicable and infectious disease
  • Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens): an infection spreading throughout the old world.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:02:02 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Subcutaneous dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria repens): an infection spreading throughout the old world. Parasit Vectors. 2017 Nov 09;10(Suppl 2):517 Authors: Genchi C, Kramer L Abstract BACKGROUND: Two main Dirofilaria species infect dogs: D. immitis and D. repens. While D. immitis has a worldwide distribution, D. repens is currently found only in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Adult D. repens are located in subcutaneous tissues of natural hosts where they survive for long periods of time. First-stage larvae, microfilariae, circulate in the peripheral bloodstream, where they are taken up by the mosquito intermediate hosts. Infected mosquitoes then transmit infective third-stage (L3) larvae to new hosts through the blood meal. In dogs, most infections are asymptomatic, although cutaneous disorders such as pruritus, dermal swelling, subcutaneous nodules, and ocular conjunctivitis can be observed. Currently, two factors have increased the concerns about this parasitic infection 1) its spread throughout the European countries and to other continents and its prevalence in dog populations, where in some cases it has overcome D. immitis; and 2) its zoonotic potential, which is much greater than that of D. immitis. RESULTS: Different hypotheses can be put forward to explain these concerns. First, climate change has allowed more favorable conditions for survival of culicid vectors. Second, accidental hosts such as humans may have a less efficient immune reaction against a parasite that is located in subcutaneous tissues, and thus less exposed to the host's immune response than, for instance, D. immitis. Furthermore, the absence of clinical signs in the majority of canine infections and the difficulty in diagnosing the infection, due to the lack of serologic tests and thus the reliance on the identification of microfilariae and differentiation from D. immitis to confirm the presence of the parasite, favor ...

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  • Elucidating the role of clofazimine for the treatment of tuberculosis.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:02:02 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Elucidating the role of clofazimine for the treatment of tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Dec 01;20(12):52-57 Authors: O'Donnell MR, Padayatchi N, Metcalfe JZ Abstract Clofazimine (CFZ), a riminophenazine and a key component of the treatment regimen for lepromatous leprosy, has been rehabilitated clinically for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Observational studies and a randomized control trial suggest efficacy in the treatment of MDR-TB and the potential for treatment shortening. Animal and translational research have shown mixed results. In this article, we review key clinical, animal, and translational data to better understand the potential role of CFZ in the treatment of MDR-TB and in shortening anti-tuberculosis treatment. PMID: 28240574 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Producing Interdisciplinary Competent Professionals: Integrating One Health Core Competencies into the Veterinary Curriculum at the University of Rwanda.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:02:02 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Producing Interdisciplinary Competent Professionals: Integrating One Health Core Competencies into the Veterinary Curriculum at the University of Rwanda. J Vet Med Educ. Winter 2017;44(4):649-659 Authors: Amuguni HJ, Mazan M, Kibuuka R Abstract Infectious diseases of grave concern to human health are emerging from wildlife and livestock populations in multiple regions of the world. Responding effectively to these emerging pandemics requires engagement of multidisciplinary groups of professionals. Using a One Health approach, One Health Central and Eastern Africa (OHCEA), a network of seven schools of public health and seven veterinary schools, with the support of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), has engaged in curriculum review with the aim of building the skills of multidisciplinary groups of professionals to improve their capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases. Through stakeholder analysis and curriculum development workshops, the University of Rwanda's School of Veterinary Medicine, in association with Tufts University, revised its curriculum to incorporate One Health competencies to be better prepared to respond to any infectious disease outbreak in Africa. The revised curriculum aimed to build cross-sectoral skills and knowledge; transform students' ways of thinking about infectious disease outbreak response; link human, veterinary, and wildlife health training opportunities; and strengthen community frontline responder training. Eight different disciplines engaged in the curriculum review process: Veterinary Medicine, Livestock Production, Wildlife and Aquatic Resources, Environmental Health and Epidemiology, Communication Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, and Public Health. One Health competencies such as communication, collaboration, leadership, and advocacy were added to the new curriculum, helping ensure that each professional be ...

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  • Genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of Kenyan domestic pigs.

    Posted 2018-02-16 11:02:02 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of Kenyan domestic pigs. PLoS One. 2018;13(1):e0190080 Authors: Mujibi FD, Okoth E, Cheruiyot EK, Onzere C, Bishop RP, Fèvre EM, Thomas L, Masembe C, Plastow G, Rothschild M Abstract The genetic diversity of African pigs, whether domestic or wild has not been widely studied and there is very limited published information available. Available data suggests that African domestic pigs originate from different domestication centers as opposed to international commercial breeds. We evaluated two domestic pig populations in Western Kenya, in order to characterize the genetic diversity, breed composition and admixture of the pigs in an area known to be endemic for African swine fever (ASF). One of the reasons for characterizing these specific populations is the fact that a proportion of indigenous pigs have tested ASF virus (ASFv) positive but do not present with clinical symptoms of disease indicating some form of tolerance to infection. Pigs were genotyped using either the porcine SNP60 or SNP80 chip. Village pigs were sourced from Busia and Homabay counties in Kenya. Because bush pigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) and warthogs (Phacochoerus spp.) are known to be tolerant to ASFv infection (exhibiting no clinical symptoms despite infection), they were included in the study to assess whether domestic pigs have similar genomic signatures. Additionally, samples representing European wild boar and international commercial breeds were included as references, given their potential contribution to the genetic make-up of the target domestic populations. The data indicate that village pigs in Busia are a non-homogenous admixed population with significant introgression of genes from international commercial breeds. Pigs from Homabay by contrast, represent a homogenous population with a "local indigenous' composition that is distinct from the international breeds, ...

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  • Extremely low Plasmodium prevalence in wild plovers and coursers from Cape Verde and Madagascar.

    Posted 2018-02-15 11:01:59 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Extremely low Plasmodium prevalence in wild plovers and coursers from Cape Verde and Madagascar. Malar J. 2017 Jun 08;16(1):243 Authors: Martínez-de la Puente J, Eberhart-Phillips LJ, Cristina Carmona-Isunza M, Zefania S, Navarro MJ, Kruger O, Hoffman JI, Székely T, Figuerola J Abstract BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the prevalence of blood parasites in shorebirds, especially those breeding in the tropics. The prevalence of blood parasites of the genera Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon was assessed in blood samples from Kentish plovers and cream-coloured coursers in Cape Verde, and samples of Kittlitz's plovers, Madagascar plovers and white-fronted plovers in Madagascar. RESULTS: Only two of these samples were positive for Plasmodium: a Kittlitz's plover was infected by a generalist lineage of Plasmodium that has already been reported in Europe and Africa, while in a white-fronted plover direct sequencing revealed a previously un-described Plasmodium lineage. CONCLUSION: Potential explanations for the low prevalence of blood parasites include the scarcity of vectors in habitats used by these bird species and their resistance to parasitic infections. PMID: 28595600 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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  • Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study.

    Posted 2018-02-15 11:01:59 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study. Malar J. 2017 Jun 12;16(1):248 Authors: Gerardin J, Bever CA, Bridenbecker D, Hamainza B, Silumbe K, Miller JM, Eisele TP, Eckhoff PA, Wenger EA Abstract BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection could be a powerful tool in malaria elimination, as it selectively targets transmission pockets. However, field operations have yet to demonstrate under which conditions, if any, reactive case detection is best poised to push a region to elimination. This study uses mathematical modelling to assess how baseline transmission intensity and local interconnectedness affect the impact of reactive activities in the context of other possible intervention packages. METHODS: Communities in Southern Province, Zambia, where elimination operations are currently underway, were used as representatives of three archetypes of malaria transmission: low-transmission, high household density; high-transmission, low household density; and high-transmission, high household density. Transmission at the spatially-connected household level was simulated with a dynamical model of malaria transmission, and local variation in vectorial capacity and intervention coverage were parameterized according to data collected from the area. Various potential intervention packages were imposed on each of the archetypical settings and the resulting likelihoods of elimination by the end of 2020 were compared. RESULTS: Simulations predict that success of elimination campaigns in both low- and high-transmission areas is strongly dependent on stemming the flow of imported infections, underscoring the need for regional-scale strategies capable of reducing transmission concurrently across many connected areas. In historically low-transmission areas, treatment of clinical malaria should form the cornerstone of ...

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  • Evidence of ongoing brucellosis in livestock animals in North West Libya.

    Posted 2018-02-14 11:01:41 by: Mahammad A. Tafida

    Related Articles Evidence of ongoing brucellosis in livestock animals in North West Libya. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2017 Dec;7(4):285-288 Authors: Al-Griw HH, Kraim ES, Farhat ME, Perrett LL, Whatmore AM Abstract Animal brucellosis is thought to be present in small ruminants, cattle, and camels in Libya, particularly in the west coastal strip. Before the system collapsed due to political unrest in 2011, prevalence of the disease did not exceed 0.2% in cattle, 0.1% in camels, 8.3% in sheep, and 14.8% in goats. The aim of this study was to highlight outbreaks of disease that took place during the 18-month period from November 2014 to April 2016. A total of 1612 serum samples, collected opportunistically from 29 herds in 12 different localities in the northwest region of Libya, were investigated for brucellosis. The samples were screened for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and confirmed with either indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in the case of sheep, and/or a serum agglutination test, followed with a complement fixation test, in the case of cattle and camels. Our results showed the highest rates of brucellosis seropositivity in goats (33.4%) and sheep (9.2%). The overall percentage of brucellosis seropositivity was 21%. The high level of brucellosis identified by this study, particularly in small ruminants, strongly suggests re-emergence of the disease in the region. Re-evaluation of intervention measures applied to the control of brucellosis is highly recommended. PMID: 29110870 [PubMed - indexed for ...

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